MicroRNAs regulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) target genes that contribute to the inflammatory phenotype. Here, we showed that the protein kinase Akt1, which is activated by LPS, positively regulated miRNAs let-7e and miR-181c but negatively regulated miR-155 and miR-125b. In silico analyses and transfection studies revealed that let-7e repressed Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas miR-155 repressed SOCS1, two proteins critical for LPS-driven TLR signaling, which regulate endotoxin sensitivity and tolerance. As a result, Akt1(-/-) macrophages exhibited increased responsiveness to LPS in culture and Akt1(-/-) mice did not develop endotoxin tolerance in vivo. Overexpression of let-7e and suppression of miR-155 in Akt1(-/-) macrophages restored sensitivity and tolerance to LPS in culture and in animals. These results indicate that Akt1 regulates the response of macrophages to LPS by controlling miRNA expression.
A. Androulidaki A*, Iliopoulos D*, Arranz A, Doxaki C, Schworer S, Zacharioudaki V, Margioris AN, Tsichlis PN, Tsatsanis C. The kinase Akt1 controls macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide by regulating microRNAs. Immunity 31:220-31, 2009. *equal contribution
This was one of the first studies showing that microRNAs regulating the expression of essential inflammatory molecules. Specifically, we found that let-7e microRNA regulates the expression of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and miR-155 regulates the expression of SOCS1.
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